Saw a fun sample of how to make this sort of globe using only points. The basic idea is that you generate points on a sphere, use any method you like really as long as you can figure out the UV coords for each point. Then take a texture mask, in this case an image of a globe. Then sample the texture for each point on the sphere and if its black (or white, depending on your mask), you can style your point however you like.
I first created a sample of spaced out points, then later on in the day someone showed me an article of how to distribute points on a sphere using fibonacci and golden ratio. So for funs I did that one too, since it gives a different type of look.
All the code is free.
[Demo - Evenly Spaced]
[Demo - Fibonacci]